Electronic Customer Relationship Management: Success factors in a funnel sales process dimensional approach

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Classification of connected system

Relationship Marketing (RM) however is mostly strategic without a holistic view of the business processes connected to it (Gummesson, 1994), were as business process are regarded as important (Parvatiyar & Sheth, 2000). CRM, on the other hand, was originated and influenced by several interconnected system in software application (Ahn et al, 2003).

A widely accepted classification of connected system to CRM that could be divided into three groups (Adebanjo, 2003) is as followed;

Operational CRM

Typically operational CRM comprise of sales force automation, marketing, and call/customer business interaction centre management. This comprise business processes system could provide complete and comprehensive tracking of customer interaction that come into any touch points which contact with the customer (Xu & Walton, 2006). The customer data is then collected through a whole wide range of touch points such as telephone, mail, fax, sales force, web, etc. The data would continue its way to be stored and organised in a database system, which is accessible to all parties whom are involved and would require the information.

Analytical CRM

This part of the CRM function as the place where stored data in the database system is analysed through a wide range of analytical tools to help better understand each customer uniqueness by generating customer profiles, identify customer behaviour, and evaluate their satisfaction level. The analytical information and knowledge acquired from this functional area would help develop an appropriate marketing and promotion strategies, which add the firms competitive advantage (Xu & Walton, 2006).

Collaborative CRM

This CRM system manage and synchronised customer touch points, which is integrated with enterprise-wide system to allow greater responsiveness to the customer throughout the value chain (Kracklauer & Mill, 2004). A collaborative selling CRM can offer knowledge and tools to everyone, for instance; employees, suppliers, or partners. The overall is to help drive sales through every channel and interaction possible with the greatest in efficiency.

While a key finding was that most organisations and functions are more likely to use CRM application that would have multiple capabilities, which is inheriting operational CRM as the primary function, when on the other hand using the analytical and collaborative CRM as the support system. However, for CRM application to reach its full potential, it must be integrated with other enterprise system and processes, therefore, must these three classifications of CRM be more seamlessly integrated in terms of business value sense for any one of them to be achieved (Romano & Fjermestad, 2003). Romano and Fjermestad (2003) explain that researchers in the three areas are unlikely to collaborate, while exploring each area independently. Furthermore, there has identified that there is little research in how to integrate these three CRM application areas. But with Xu and Walton (2006) analytical study can argues that software production house are in fact developing CRM applications with all the three classification integrated into one system, this include vendors such as Onyx, PeopleSoft, SAP, etc. Therefore, show that practitioners are the ones advancing and maturing this disciplinary area of studies. Agreeing with Romano and Fjermestad (2003) again that development of conceptual model in integration is the building block for CRM architectures of the three classifications, which would, addresses all of the organisation’s need in this area.


  • Sangi Jerusha