Method of analysis
As recalled, the study was divided into two phrases, one for the keyword analysis and other is using the one sample t-test to test the factor for relevancy. In the keyword analysis section, this is where a software program has been developed in order to query the Emerald journal database. This program is structured using an object oriented approach and each journal article is represented as an object. Each object will consist of properties and that each of properties content value of the article authors, title, journal name, keywords, description, year of published, page, journal volume, and the journal issue number. A number of experimental analysis have been conducted, one of which was the historical review of journals published in different years. Any form of analysis could be further conducted for future research using this form of querying the Emerald database in which the source code of the program is included in appendix D. Also following the work of Kevork and Vrechopoulos (2009) in analysing the keywords of the journal articles as an authentic mean of representing the focus in what topic area in which the discipline has evolved into. This was the intend purpose of this software program to help the author address the area number of published research of other scholars in the discipline and that factors could be categorised and structured into meaningful framework for the author to work on.
When factors are extracted from the keyword analysis and structured, it should subjected to empirical scrutiny testing to verified that the findings are valid for academics and practitioners to further make use of the discovered body of framework. Therefore, each factor would be tested using one sample t-test to which is a parametric test. The test is to test a belief relating to each factor based on the survey sample as evidence. Given that our data is quantitative data and that it is normally distributed using the assumption that it may be valid using the Central Limit Theorem (CLT), providing that we have data sample size more than 30 which is a valid quantity for parametric testing. Two testing value is will be made to test for factor irrelevant and for highly relevant and using the 95% confident level to test the significant of the assumption that is valid for business applications. After the hypothesis testing has be conducted on the factors in funnel sales process then making the factor a statistically valid assumption that there are relevant in contributing to the success of allowing customer through the sales process as a generic theory and framework for academics and practitioners to implement in their further studies or business strategies.
Limitations bias and ethical strategy
There are several limitations that are acknowledged by the author in conducting this study. Firstly, the questionnaires have only use the online approach and therefore the variety of sample pool is limited to the group of people whom use the internet, e.g. we have a small percentage in elderly respondents conducting the survey. Another limitation is the sample could be bias to the perception on how the discipline should be as a generic universal knowledge; this is because that the sample is mostly Asian in majority, where cultural aspect could create bias in the data gathered. In order to prove a theory, it must be generally test across all cultural dimensions when studying the knowledge of sociological science. But this limitation could be argued as legitimate and that the sample population is homogenous. Several literatures have conclude that to achieve internal validity in the research, it is required that homogenous sample inheriting in a focus group and is therefore appropriate for theory development purpose. As a result, it could be believed that the sample chosen might not reflect the cognitive norms, psychological states, social behaviour or customer expectation in a wider population (Bryman & Bell, 2003).
Another domain in this study, which foreseeable limitation could surface is in the literature historical and keyword analysis. The author has use only one source of information in journal database that is Emerald. Thus, that database that is subjected in this study is commonly and widely used for academic publications, the question remain that literatures in this discipline is not only published in this database, where that the analytical result is only a sample representation to the discipline and could not be regarded as the whole population of academic publications. Yet in the keyword analysis, the author used a computer regular expression and when keywords are not meeting the expression policy it will not be regarded as a frequency count toward that is be categorised. The keywords are categorised into groups by the author interpretation of the data which is subjected to commonly acceptable knowledge that the author has in the discipline. This might lead to incorrect assumptions in how the theory should evolve into, using the positivism dimension of epistemological approach on how knowledge is interpreted is subject to the reader own perception in the discipline.
Finally, the most important limitation in this study that could not simply be left out mentioning, otherwise if the author wishes for the supervisor or the journal editor to fall asleep during the marking this paper. That limitation is the combination of using the Likert scale type survey and analysing it using the one sample t-test. The concept that Likert (1932) introduced is the summated scale for assessing the survey respondent’s attitude, which is subjected to arguable debate among scholars (Clasen & Dormody, 1994). This is said that when using t-test in a parametric test that survey process must be ordered and have normality. But Likert type survey data show difficulties in seeing how normally distributed data and that the data is frequently classified as skewed, and that often the data captured is not inheriting true limits in the attitude. The one sample t-test requires that statistical data have a normal distribution and scores among different groups exhibit homogeneous variances. This is where Micceri (1989) found in his studies that the context if sociological science in consumer behaviour that the data gathered do not follow invariance normal distributions. Therefore, after all limitations is known in this research and that the author has acknowledge these limits in the study, then to comprehend, a responsible research has been conducted with the contemplation in the philosophical paradigms of different schools of thought.